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Two conditions of transfusion reaction.
Aug 10, 2018

Heart failure, pulmonary edema


1. Because drop rate is too fast, in short period input is overmuch liquid, make circulatory blood volume increases sharply, the heart is burdened be caused by overweight.


2. Symptoms of sudden chest tightness, shortness of breath, cough foam phlegm; In severe cases, thin sputum can be gush from the mouth and nose, the lungs appear wet rales, and the heart rate is fast.


3. Method of prevention and cure


(1) infusion speed should not be too fast, and the input volume should not be excessive. Particular attention should be paid to heart patients, the elderly and children.


(2) when the symptoms of pulmonary edema occur, the infusion should be stopped immediately, and the doctor should be informed, and the patient should be seated with both legs drooping, so as to reduce venous reflux and reduce the burden on the heart.


(3) provide diastolic blood vessels, antiasthmatic and cardiac tonic according to the doctor's instructions.


(4) high flow oxygen inhalation, and replace the water in the humidification bottle with 20%-30% alcohol to be inhaled after humidification, so as to reduce the tension on the foam surface in the alveolar and dissipate the foam bursting, thereby improving air exchange in the lungs and reducing the symptoms of hypoxia.


(5) if necessary, the tourniquet should be applied to the extremities (the limbs should be relaxed every 5-10 minutes in turn, which can effectively reduce the amount of cardioplegia). After the symptoms are relieved, the tourniquet should be gradually removed.


phlebitis


1. The reason is that the long-term infusion of drugs with high concentration and strong stimulation, or the placing of stimulating plastic pipe in the vein for too long, causes chemical inflammatory reaction of local venous wall. Local venous infection may also result from lax aseptic operation during infusion.


2. Symptoms along the venous route appear a cord red line, local tissue red, swelling, hot, pain, sometimes accompanied by cold, fever and other systemic symptoms.


3. Prevention methods to avoid infection, reduce the stimulation of the blood vessel wall as a principle.


(1) sterility technical operation should be strictly implemented. Drugs that stimulate blood vessels, such as erythromycin and hydrocortisone, should be applied after being diluted sufficiently to prevent drugs from spilling out of blood vessels. The injection site should be changed frequently to protect the vein.


(2) lift the affected limb and brake it, and apply it locally with 95% alcohol or 50% magnesium sulfate.


(3) external application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) or ruyi golden powder was applied twice a day for 30 minutes each time.


(4) ultrashort wave physiotherapy, irradiated with TDP therapeutic device twice a day for 30 minutes each time.


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