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The Development Of Surgical Sutures
Mar 25, 2018

Absorptivity refers to the ability of the body to degrade over time. Therefore, the stitches can be divided into absorbable and non-absorbable lines. Absorbable lines are commonly used to refer to sutures that can be lost to most tensile strength in 60 days. The absorption of sutures is achieved through the reaction of the tissue to the suture. The sutures that need to be buried inside the body and deep in the wound are usually selected as absorbable lines, while the non-absorbable line is used to close the wound and eventually be removed. In rare cases, non-absorbable lines are also used when deep tissue is required to maintain tensile strength for a long time.

For thousands of years, the sutures of different materials were used and debated, but remained largely unchanged. The needle is made of bone or metal (such as silver, copper, aluminum bronze wire). Sutures are made from plant materials (flax, hemp and cotton) or animal materials (hair, tendons, arteries, muscle strips or nerves, silk, and gut). African cultures use thorns, while others use ants to suture, which is to trick the insects into biting both sides of the wound and then twisting their heads.

The earliest records of surgical suture can be traced back to the ancient Egypt of 3000 BC, and the oldest known suture was the mummy of 1100 BC. The first detailed written record of the wound stitching and the use of suture material came from the Indian sage and physician, su xu, in 500 BC. Hippocrates, the father of medicine in Greece, and olus Cornelius celsus of Rome later described basic suture techniques. The first to describe the intestinal suture was the second century Roman physician galen, [1] who was also thought to be the 10th century andalucian surgeon killed herat. It is recorded that the strings of a hora lute were swallowed by a monkey, and he discovered the nature of the intestinal absorption. Since then, medical sheep gut has been manufactured.

Joseph lister introduced the great changes in suture techniques, and he advocated routine disinfection of all sutures. In the 1860s, he first tried to sterilize the "calcium carbonate gut", and 20 years later he sterilized the chromium gut. In 1906, a sterile catgut was made with iodine.

The next big leap took place in the 20th century. With the development of the chemical industry, the first synthetic line was made in the 1930s, and numerous absorption and non-absorbable synthesis lines developed rapidly. The first synthetic line was made from polyvinyl alcohol in 1931. Polyester lines were developed in the 1950s, and radiation sterilization for the gut and polyester was developed. Polyglycolic acid was discovered in the 1960s, and it was used in the production of sutures in the 1970s. [1] now, most of the seams are made of polymer fibers. Only silk and intestinal lines were still used in ancient materials - though not often. In Europe and Japan, the gut is banned for bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and silk is sometimes used in blood vessels and otolaryngology.