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Diabetes Health Education
May 28, 2018

With the development of social economy and the continuous improvement of living standards and the rhythm of work and life, the incidence of diabetes is getting higher and higher, and it is becoming younger. Diabetes, as a life-long disease, is difficult to achieve with simple treatment alone. Effect. Many diabetic patients do not pay enough attention to diabetes and are ignorant of its harm. They do not know how to maintain the stability of blood sugar, so that the condition cannot be controlled in time for development. Finally, various serious complications occur and even endanger life. Diabetes education is the core of diabetes prevention. The contents of the five carriages will be discussed below.

1 Diet Therapy

Principle: Patients with diabetes not only need to control the staple food, but also control the total calories on the 1st, balance the diet while controlling total calories, and diversify food choices. Cereals are the foundation, eat more high-fiber foods such as coarse grains and vegetables, select the right amount of high-quality protein, reduce salt intake, limit high-fat, high-cholesterol intake, quit smoking and limit alcohol, adhere to small meals or regular, quantitative, and meal orders. Avoid over-diet, vegan foods, and prevent hypoglycemia and malnutrition.

Nutrient distribution: three major nutrients, carbohydrates accounted for 50% to 60%, that is, daily intake of 200 ~ 300g is appropriate, fat accounted for 25% to 30%, of which cholesterol is less than 300g per day, protein accounted for 15 to 20% , daily 1 ~ 2g, fish, poultry, meat, eggs, milk, beans and other high-quality protein-based. A reasonable diet for diabetes promotes a balanced diet. Carbohydrates (main foods) are the main foods on the table. They must not eat staple foods or eat staple foods. Vegetables and fruits have high nutritional value and health care value and can prevent lifestyle diseases caused by excess energy. When blood sugar control is ideal, fruit can be added between meals. Drink 6-8 cups of water a day (250ml/cup), develop regular drinking habits, keep the body in water balance, and prevent hyperviscosity and thrombosis. Regular meals, meals, meals, and snacks are used for regular meals. Advocate eating less and more meals, not less than three meals a day, both to ensure the absorption of nutrients, but also reduce the burden on the islet.

2 exercise therapy

The significance of exercise: Participate in proper physical exercise and physical exercise, increase insulin sensitivity, promote the use of sugar, reduce the burden on the islet, reduce blood sugar, eliminate blood fat, lose weight, and improve physical conditions.

The way of exercise: Advocate aerobic exercise. Diabetic patients have the right means of walking, jogging, swimming, rowing, and aerobic gymnastics. The preferred method of exercise is walking. Walking is also the simplest, most effective, and safest sport. Exercise time is best started at 1 hour after a meal, every 30 to 40 minutes. The amount of exercise is from small to large, exercise intensity is from weak to strong, and the exercise mode is from simple to complex, perseverance, overcoming inertia and blindness, and you can also choose your own Interested in sports. Bring candy, cookies, and diabetes help cards with you to prevent hypoglycemia.

3 drug treatment

Medication principles: (1) Select drugs according to type of diabetes; (2) Select drugs according to patient size; (3) Select drugs according to type of hyperglycemia; (4) Select drugs according to whether there are other diseases; (5) Choose drugs according to age .

Medication time: For patients with diabetes who need to be controlled by hypoglycemic drugs, medication should be given under the guidance of a doctor. Do not change the drug or stop the drug without authorization. The sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent taken before meals should be taken 30 minutes before meals. The biguanide hypoglycemic agents that are taken after meals should be taken immediately after meals to reduce irritation to the gastrointestinal tract. The glucosidase inhibitors such as glycoglycopyrine should be taken at the same time as the first meal. At the same time, the chewing gum should be emphasized. If you forget that a hypoglycemic drug is not eaten, take it the next time as usual. Don't take up the last drug you didn't take, otherwise it will cause hypoglycemia and produce hypoglycemia.

4 diabetes education

Directing patients to actively prevent risk factors such as changing unhealthy lifestyles, not smoking, drinking less salt, eating a reasonable diet, actively participating in appropriate exercise and reducing obesity can reduce the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. Educate patients to prevent predisposing factors in diabetic homes, such as acute infection or other diseases, mental stress, emotional instability, etc.; anesthesia, trauma or surgery; women's pregnancy; improper dietary control; improper use of insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs; hypoglycemia Frequent attacks; overwork and so on. Strengthen the health education of diabetic patients, improve the patient's ability to self-test and self-care to reduce or delay the occurrence and development of diabetic complications and improve the quality of life of patients [2].

5 Self-monitoring

The fasting and postprandial blood glucose are done at least once a week, and the glycated hemoglobin is measured once every 2 to 3 months. Since diabetes can cause heart, brain, kidney, eye and peripheral nervous system complications, blood pressure should be measured regularly, blood, urine routine, electrocardiogram, blood lipids, renal function, uric acid, urinary microalbumin, fundus and nervous system examinations. In order to facilitate a detailed understanding of the disease, the diabetes record form should be filled in carefully to record the weight, blood pressure, diet, and medication. In particular, patients with serious illness should pay more attention.

Diabetes education is a comprehensive education process. In order to make the health education truly satisfy patients, the nursing staff must improve their own business level and use various opportunities patiently and meticulously to carry out health education so that patients can maintain a happy mood and alleviate the disease. The pressure comes. Grasp the correct treatment, diet and exercise methods, control blood glucose at or near normal levels, reduce symptoms, maintain disease stability, and avoid the occurrence of diabetic complications. It also promotes the development of diabetes health education in a scientific and standardized way so that it can achieve a wide range of social effects.